<i>Fantasmagorie (1908)</i> by Émile Cohl

Fantasmagorie (1908) by Émile Cohl

100 Important Directors of Animated Short Films:  Background

This list of 100 important directors of animated short films was assembled in late 2008 to serve as a complement to “Brief Encounters,” a proposed list of 250 great short films (both animated and live-action) which was to be developed by the folks at the They Shoot Pictures, Don’t They? website.  Unfortunately, that 250-film list is in limbo, leaving our list without a home.

The “100 Important Directors of Animated Short Films” list is not intended to be comprehensive.  These are simply 100 directors whom we feel are important and deserving of increased recognition by film lovers.  For each director, we selected three “highly recommended” movies.  In addition, we included a category of “TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts” to highlight any of these directors’ films which were tentatively slated to place on the abandoned Brief Encounters list.

This project was facilitated by Lee Price (lee-109) on the IMDb Classic Film message board.  Project team:  Lee Price, Robert Reynolds (Illtdesq), Jorge Didaco (jdidaco), Bill Kamberger (bkamberger), and Rob Tomshany (RobT-2), with additional input from animation fans on the IMDb Classic Film message board.

aldsashin

Rozhdestvo/Christmas (1997) directed by Mikhail Aldashin

100 Important Directors of Animated Short Films:  The List

Mikhail Aldashin
1958 –
Born Tuapse, USSR
Key production country:  Russia
Highly recommended:  The Other Side (1993), Christmas (1997), Bukashki (2002)

Alexander Alexeieff and Claire Parker
Alexander Alexeieff (1901 – 1982);  Claire Parker (1906 – 1981)
Alexander Alexeieff born Kazan, Russia;  Claire Parker born Boston, Massachusetts
Key production country:  France
Highly recommended:  Night on Bald Mountain (1933), En Passant (1943), The Nose (1963)

Tex Avery
1908 – 1980
Born  Taylor, Texas
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Blitz Wolf (1942), Red Hot Riding Hood (1943), King-Size Canary (1947), The Cat That Hated People (1948)
Other highly recommended shorts:  Lucky Ducky (1948), Bad Luck Blackie (1949), The Legend of Rockabye Point (1955)

Frédéric Back
1924 –
Born Saarbrücken, Germany
Key production country:  Canada
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Crac (1981)
Other highly recommended shorts:  All Nothing (1980), The Man Who Planted Trees (1987), The Mighty River (1993)

Joseph Barbera and William Hanna
Joseph Barbera (1911 – 2006);  William Hanna (1910 – 2001)
Joseph Barbera born New York City, New York;  William Hanna born Melrose, New Mexico
Key production country: USA
Highly recommended:  The Night Before Christmas (1941), Mouse in Manhattan (1945), The Cat Concerto (1947)

Garry Bardin
1941 –
Born Chkalov, Soviet Union
Key production country:  Soviet Union
Highly recommended:  The Coiling Prankster/Fioritures (1988), Grey Wolf & Little Red Riding Hood (1990), Adagio (2000)

Jirí Barta
1948 –
Born Prague, Czechoslovakia
Key production country:  Czechoslovakia
Highly recommended:  The Vanished World of Gloves (1982), The Last Theft (1987), The Club of the Laid Off (1989)

Walerian Borowczyk
1923 – 2006
Born Kwilcz, Poland
Key production country:  France
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Les Jeux des Anges (1964), Rosalie (1966), Dom/House (1958), Les Astronautes (1959)
Highly recommended:  The Concert of Mr. and Mrs. Kabal (1962), Renaissance (1963), Scherzo Infernal (1984)

Charley Bowers
1877 – 1946
Born Paterson, New Jersey
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Now You Tell One (1926)
Highly recommended:  Egged On (1926), There It Is (1928), It’s a Bird (1930)

Bruno Bozzetto
1933 –
Born Milan, Italy
Key production country:  Italy
Highly recommended:  Life in a Tin (1967), Baeus (1987), Grasshoppers (1990)

<i>At the Ends of the Earth</i> (1999) directed by Konstantin Bronzit

At the Ends of the Earth (1999) directed by Konstantin Bronzit

Konstantin Bronzit
1965 –
Born Leningrad, USSR
Key production country:  Russia
Highly recommended:  At the Ends of the Earth (1999), The Goddess (2003), Lavatory-Lovestory (2007)

Robert Cannon
1909 – 1964
Born Ohio, USA
Key production country: USA
Highly recommended:  Gerald McBoing Boing (1951), Christopher Crumpet (1953), The Jaywalker (1956)

Ivo Caprino
1920 – 2001
Born Oslo, Norway
Key production country:  Norway
Highly recommended:  Karius og Baktus (1954), The Steadfast Tin Soldier (1955), The Seventh Father in the House (1966)

Robert Clampett
1913 – 1984
Born Detroit, Michigan, USA
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Porky in Wackyland (1938)
Highly recommended:  A Corny Concerto (1943), Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs (1943), The Great Piggy Bank Robbery (1946)

Émile Cohl
1857 – 1938
Born Paris, France
Key production country:  France
Highly recommended:  Fantasmagorie (1908), The Automatic Moving Company (1910), The Hasher’s Delirium (1910)

Richard Condie
1942 –
Born Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  Getting Started (1979), The Big Snit (1985), The Apprentice (1991)

Arthur Davis
1905 – 2000
Born Yonkers, New York, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  The Little Match Girl (1937), Dough-Ray Meow (1948), Bowery Bugs (1949)

Walt Disney
1901 – 1966
Born Chicago, Illinois, USA
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Steamboat Willie (1928)
Highly recommended:  Alice’s Wonderland (1923), Plane Crazy (1928), The Skeleton Dance (1929)

Borivoj Dovnikovic
1930 –
Born Osijek, Croatia, Yugoslavia
Key production country:  Yugoslavia
Highly recommended:  Curiosity (1966), Krek (1968), An Exciting Love Story (1989)

Paul Driessen
1940 –
Born Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  Cat’s Cradle (1974), Spotting a Cow (1984), The Boy Who Saw the Iceberg (2000)

Michael Dudok de Wit
1953 –
Born Abcoude, Utrecht, Netherlands
Key production country:  Netherlands
Highly recommended:  The Monk and the Fish (1994), Father and Daughter (2000), The Aroma of Tea (2006)

Piotr Dumala
1956 –
Born Warsw, Poland
Key production country:  Poland
Highly recommended:  Walls (1988), Wolnosc nogi (1989), Franz Kafka (1992)

David Fine and Alison Snowden
David Fine (1955 – );  Alison Snowden (1958 – )
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  Second Class Mail (1985), George and Rosemary (1987), Bob’s Birthday (1993)

Hans Fischerkosen
1896 – 1973
Born Bad Kösen/Saale, Germany
Key production country:  Germany
Highly recommended:  Das Blaue Wunder (1935), Weatherbeaten Melody (1943), The Snowman (1944)

Oskar Fischinger
1900 – 1967
Born Gelnhausen, Germany
Key production country:  Germany
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Motion Painting No. 1 (1947)
Highly recommended:  Studie Nr. 7 (1931), Komposition in Blau (1935), Allegretto (1936)

Dave Fleischer
1894 – 1979
Born New York City, New York, USA
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Out of the Inkwell (1918), Snow-White (1933)
Highly recommended:  Ko-Ko’s Earth Control (1928), Bimbo’s Initiation (1931), Minnie The Moocher (1932)

<i>High Diving Hare</i> (1949) directed by Friz Freleng

High Diving Hare (1949) directed by Friz Freleng

Friz Freleng
1905 – 1995
Born Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Rhapsody In Rivets (1941), Pigs in a Polka (1943), High Diving Hare (1949)

Clyde Geronimi
1901 – 1989
Born Italy
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Lend a Paw (1941), Education For Death (1943), The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1958)

Burt Gillett
1891 – 1971
Born Elmira, New York, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Flowers and Trees (1932), Three Little Pigs (1933), Lonesome Ghosts (1937)

Bob Godfrey
1921 –
Born West Maitland, New South Wales, Australia
Key production country:  UK
Highly recommended:  Do-It-Yourself Cartoon Kit (1961), Kama Sutra Rides Again (1972), Great (1975)

Paul Grimault
1905 – 1994
Born Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, Île-de-France, France
Key production country:  France
Highly recommended:  The Scarecrow (1943), The Little Soldier (1947), Le Chien Melomane (1973)

John Halas and Joy Batchelor
John Halas (1912 – 1995);  Joy Batchelor (1914 – 1991)
John Halas born Budapest, Austria-Hungary;  Joy Batchelor born Watford, Hertfordshire, England, UK
Key production country:  UK
Highly recommended:  The Owl and the Pussycat (1952)The Christmas Visitor (1959), Automania 2000 (1964)

David Hand
1900 – 1986
Born Plainfield, New Jersey, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Who Killed Cock Robin? (1935), Three Orphan Kittens (1935), Thru the Mirror (1936)

Jack Hannah
1913 – 1994
Born Arizona, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Lambert The Sheepish Lion (1952), The New Neighbor (1953), In The Bag (1956)

<i>Peace on Earth</i> (1939) directed by Hugh Harman

Peace on Earth (1939) directed by Hugh Harman

Hugh Harman
1903 – 1982
Born Pagosa Springs, Colorado, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Tale of the Vienna Woods (1934), The Old Mill Pond (1936), Peace on Earth (1939)

Pierre Hébert
1944 –
Born Montréal, Québec, Canada
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  Op Hop – Hop Op (1966), Around Perception (1968), Memories of War (1983)

Don Hertzfeldt
1976 –
Born Fremont, California, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Genre (1996), Rejected (2000), The Meaning of Life (2005)

Co Hoedeman
1940 –
Born Netherlands
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  Tchou-Tchou (1972), The Sand Castle (1977), Ludovic – The Snow Gift (1998)

<i>Moonbird</i> (1959) directed by John and Faith Hubley

Moonbird (1959) directed by John and Faith Hubley

John & Faith Hubley
John Hubley (1914 – 1977);  Faith Hubley (1924 – 2001)
John Hubley born Marinette, Wisconsin, USA;  Faith Hubley born New York City, New York, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Rooty Toot Toot (1951), The Tender Game (1958), Moonbird (1959)

Rudolf Ising
1903 – 1992
Born Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  The Calico Dragon (1935), Dance of the Weed (1941), The Bear and the Beavers (1942)

Ivan Ivanov-Vano
1900 – 1987
Born Russia
Key production country:  USSR
Highly recommended:  Black and White (1932), The Battle of Kerzhenets (co-directed with Yuriy Norshteyn) (1971), Ave Maria (1972)

Ub Iwerks
1901 – 1971
Born Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Hell’s Bells (1929), The Cuckoo Murder Case (1930), Balloon Land (1935)

Wilfred Jackson
1906 – 1988
Born Chicago, Illinois, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  The Band Concert (1935), The Country Cousin (1936), The Old Mill (1937)

Chuck Jones
1912 – 2002
Born Spokane, Washington, USA
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Bully for Bugs (1953), Duck Amuck (1953), One Froggy Evening (1955), What’s Opera, Doc? (1957)
Highly recommended:  Rabbit of Seville (1950), Feed the Kitty (1952), Duck Dodgers in the 24 1/2 Century (1953)

Piotr Kamler
1936 –
Born Warsaw, Poland
Key production country:  France
Le Labyrinthe (1969), Coeur de secours (1973), Le Pas (1975)

<i>Dojoji Temple</i> (1976) directed by Kihachiro Kawamoto

Dojoji Temple (1976) directed by Kihachiro Kawamoto

Kihachiro Kawamoto
1925 –
Born Tokyo, Japan
Key production country:  Japan
Highly recommended:  Dojoji Temple (1976), House of Flame (1979), Sleeping Beauty (1990)

William Kentridge
1955 –
Born South Africa
Key production country:  South Africa
Highly recommended:  Felix in Exile (1994), History of the Main Complaint (1996), Automatic Writing (2003)

Fyodor Khitruk
1917 –
Born Tver, USSR
Key production country:  USSR
Highly recommended:  Film, Film, Film (1968), Vinni Pukh (1969), Ostrov/The Island (1973)

Nikolai Khodataev
Key production country:  USSR
Highly recommended:  Interplanetary Revolution (1924), China In Flames (1925), We’ll Keep Our Eyes Peeled (1927)

Andrey Khrzhanovskiy
1939 –
Born Moscow, USSR
Key production country:  USSR
Highly recommended:  The Glass Harmonica (1968), Armoire (1970), Butterfly (1972)

Jack King
1895 – 1958
Born Alabama, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Mr. Duck Steps Out (1940), Truant Officer Donald (1941), Donald’s Snow Fight (1942)

Jack Kinney
1908 – 1992
Born Utah, USA
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Der Fuehrer’s Face (1942)
Highly recommended:  How to Swim (1942), How to Play Football (1944), Goofy Gymnastics (1949)

Igor Kovalyov
1963 –
Kiev, Ukraine, USSR
Key production country:  Russia
Highly recommended:  Investigation is Held by the Koloboks (1986), Hen, His Wife (1990), Andrey Svislotskiy (1992)

Jerzy Kucia
1942 –
Born Soltysy, Poland
Key production country:  Poland
Highly recommended:  Reflections (1979), Across the Field (1992), Tuning the Instruments (2000)

<i>La Demoiselle et le violoncelliste</i> (1965) directed by Jean-François Laguionie

La Demoiselle et le violoncelliste (1965) directed by Jean-François Laguionie

Jean-François Laguionie
1939 –
Born Besançon, Doubs, France
Key production country:  France
La Demoiselle et le violoncelliste (1965), Le Masque du diable (1976), La Traversée de l’Atlantique à la rame (1978)

René Laloux
1929 – 2004
Born Paris, France
Key production country:  France
Highly recommended:  Les Temps Morts (1964), Les Escargots (1965), How Wang-Fo Was Saved (1987)

Walter Lantz
1899 – 1994
Born New Rochelle, New York, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Knock Knock (1940), The Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy of Company “B” (1941), The Hams That Couldn’t Be Cured (1942)

John Lasseter
1957 –
Hollywood, California, USA
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Knick Knack (1989)
Highly recommended:  Luxo, Jr. (1986), Red’s Dream (1987), Tin Toy (1988)

Caroline Leaf
1946 –
Born Seattle, Washington, USA
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  The Street (1976), The Metamorphosis of Mr. Samsa (1977), Two Sisters (1990)

Jan Lenica
1928 – 2001
Born Poznan, Poland
Key production country:  Poland
Highly recommended:  Nowy Janko Muzykant/New Janko the Musician (1961), Labirynt (1963), ‘A’ (1965)

Emanuele Luzzati and Giulio Gianini
Emanuele Luzzati (1921 – 2007);  Giulio Gianini (1927 – )
Emanuele Luzzati born Genoa, Italy;  Giulio Gianini born Rome, Italy
Key production country:  Italy
Highly recommended:  The Thieving Magpie (1964), Alì Babà (1970), Pulcinella (1973)

Len Lye
1901 – 1980
Born Christchurch, New Zealand
Key production country:  UK
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Rainbow Dance (1936), Trade Tattoo (1937), Free Radicals (1958)
Highly recommended:  A Colour Box (1935), Colour Flight (1937), Swinging the Lambeth Walk (1940)

Kenzô Masaoka
1898 – 1988
Born Suita, Osaka, Japan
Key production country:  Japan
Highly recommended:  Nonsense Story, Volume 1: Monkey Island (1931), A Song of the Chagama Family (1935), The Spider and the Tulip (1943)

Winsor McCay
1871 – 1934
Born Spring Lake, Michigan, USA
Key production country:  USA
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Gertie the Dinosaur (1914)
Highly recommended:  Winsor McCay, the Famous Cartoonist of the NY Herald and His Moving Comics (1911), The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918), Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: The Flying House (1921)

Robert McKimson
1910 – 1977
Born Denver, Colorado, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Walky Talky Hawky (1946), A-Lad-In His Lamp (1948), Hillbilly Hare (1950)

Norman McLaren
1914 – 1987
Born Stirling, Scotland, UK
Key production country:  Canada
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Dots (1940), C’est l’aviron (1944), The Young Grey Hen (1947), Begone Dull Care (1949), Neighbours (1952), Pas de deux (1968)
Highly recommended:  Blinkity Blank (1955), A Chairy Tale (1957), Le Merle/The Blackbird (1958)

Otto Messmer
1892 – 1983
Born Union City, New Jersey, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Felix In Hollywood (1923), Felix the Cat Dines and Pines (1927), Comicalamities (1928)

Eduard Nazarov
1941 –
Born Moscow, USSR
Key production country:  USSR
Highly recommended:  There Once Was a Dog (1982), Travels of an Ant (1983), Martinko (1987)

<i>Hedgehog in the Fog</i> (1975) directed by Yuriy Norshteyn

Hedgehog in the Fog (1975) directed by Yuriy Norshteyn

Yuriy Norshteyn
1941 –
Born Andreyevka, Penza, USSR
Key production country:  USSR
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Hedgehog in the Fog (1975), Tale of Tales (1979)
Highly recommended:  Seasons (co-directed with Ivan Ivanov-Vano) (1969), The Fox and the Hare (1973), Heron and Crane (1974)

Willis O’Brien
1886 – 1962
Born Oakland, California, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  The Dinosaur and the Missing Link (1915), Prehistoric Poultry (1916), The Ghost of Slumber Mountain (1918)

George Pal
1908 – 1980
Born Cegled, Austria-Hungary
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Tulips Shall Grow (1942), John Henry and the Inky Poo (1946), Tubby the Tuba (1947)

Nick Park
1958 –
Born Preston, Lancashire, England, UK
Key production country:  UK
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  The Wrong Trousers (1993)
Highly recommended:  Creature Comforts (1989), A Grand Day Out (1989), A Close Shave (1995)

Priit Pärn
1946 –
Born Tallinn, Estonia
Key production country:  Estonia
Highly recommended:  Breakfast on the Grass (1987), Hotell E (1992), 1895 (1995)

<i>The Bead Game</i> (1977) directed by Ishu Patel

The Bead Game (1977) directed by Ishu Patel

Ishu Patel
1942 –
Born Gujarat, India
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  The Bead Game (1977), Afterlife (1978), Paradise (1984)

Michaela Pavlátová
1961 –
Born Prague, Czechoslovakia
Key production country:  Czech Republic
Reci, Reci, Reci (1991), Repete (1995), The Carnival of Animals (2006)

Aleksandr Petrov
1957 –
Born Prechistoye, Yaroslavl province, USSR
Key production country:  USSR
Highly recommended:  The Cow (1989), The Old Man and the Sea (1999), My Love (2006)

Bill Plympton
1946 –
Born Portland, Oregon, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Your Face (1987), 25 Ways To Quit Smoking (1989), Guard Dog (2004)

Bretislav Pojar
1923 –
Born Susice, Czechoslovakia
Key production country:  Czechoslovakia
Highly recommended:  The Lion and the Song (1959), ‘E’ (1981), Nightangel (1986)

Barry Purves
Key production country:  UK
Highly recommended:  Next (1989), Screen Play (1992), Achilles (1995)

Stephen and Timothy Quay
Stephen Quay (1947 – );  Timothy Quay (1947 –
Stephen and Timothy Quay born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Key production country:  UK
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Street of Crocodiles (1986)
Highly recommended:  Gilgamesh, or This Unnameable Little Broom (1985), Rehearsals for Extinct Anatomies (1988), In Absentia (2000)

Joanna Quinn
1962 –
Born Birmingham, England, UK
Key production country:  UK
Highly recommended:  Girl’s Night Out (1987), Britannia (1993), Dreams and Desires (2006)

Lotte Reiniger
1899 – 1981
Born Berlin, Germany
Key production country:  Germany
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Papageno (1935)
Highly recommended:  Cinderella (1922), The Little Chimney Sweep (1954), Hansel and Gretel (1955)

Wolfgang Reitherman
1909 – 1985
Born Munich, Germany
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  The Truth About Mother Goose (1957), Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree (1966), Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day (1968)

Walter Ruttmann
1887 – 1941
Born Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany
Key production country:  Germany
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Melody of the World (1929)
Highly recommended:  Opus II (1921), Opus III (1924), Opus IV (1925)

Zbigniew Rybczynski
1949 –
Born Lodz, Poland
Key production country:  Poland
Highly recommended:  Soup (1975), Tango (1981), The Fourth Dimension (1988)

Georges Schwizgebel
1944 –
Born Bern, Switzerland
Key production country: Switzerland
Highly recommended:  78 Tours (1985), La Course à l’abîme (1992), L’Homme sans ombre (2004)

Garik Seko
1935 – 1994
Born Tbilisi, Georgian SSR, USSR
Key production country:  Czechoslovakia
Highly recommended:  Faust’s House (1977), Ex Libris (1982), My Kamarad Tika (1987)

<i>Harpya</i> (1979) directed by Raoul Servais

Harpya (1979) directed by Raoul Servais

Raoul Servais
1928 –
Born Oostende, Belgium
Key production country:  Belgium
Highly recommended:  Sirene (1968), Harpya (1979), Atraksion (2001)

Ben Sharpsteen
1895 – 1980
Born Sonoma County, California, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Mickey’s Service Station (1935), Clock Cleaners (1937), Mickey’s Trailer (1938)

Harry Smith
1923 – 1991
Born Portland, Oregon, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Number 5: Circular Tensions: Homage to Oskar Fischinger (1949), Number 7 (1951), Number 10 (1956)

Wladyslaw Starewicz
1882 – 1965
Born Wilno, Poland, Russian Empire
Key production country:  France
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  The Cameraman’s Revenge (1912), Fétiche (1934)
Highly recommended:  The Insect’s Christmas (1913), The Frog Who Wanted to be King (1923), The Voice of the Nightingale (1923)

Jan Svankmajer
1934 –
Born Prague, Czechoslovakia
Key production country:  Czechoslovakia
TSPDT 250 Greatest Shorts:  Dimensions of Dialogue (1982), A Quiet Week in the House (1969)
Highly recommended:  Darkness/Light/Darkness (1989), Down to the Cellar (1983), Jídlo/Food (1992)

Frank Tashlin
1913 – 1972
Born Weehawken, New Jersey, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Have You Got Any Castles? (1938), Porky Pig’s Feat (1943), Swooner Crooner (1944)

Osamu Tezuka
1928 – 1989
Born Toyonaka, Japan
Key production country:  Japan
Highly recommended:  Mermaid (1964), Jumping (1984), Legend of the Forest (1987)

Wendy Tilby
1960 –
Born Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  Tables of Contents (1986), Strings (1991), When the Day Breaks (1999)

Jirí Trnka
1912 – 1969
Born Pilsen, Austria-Hungary
Key production country:  Czechoslovakia
Highly recommended:  The Story of the Bass Cello (1949), The Cybernetic Grandma (1962), Ruka/The Hand (1965)

Will Vinton
1948 –
Born McMinnville, Oregon, USA
Key production country:  USA
Highly recommended:  Closed Mondays (1974), The Creation (1981), The Great Cognito (1982)

Dusan Vukotic
1927 – 1998
Born Bileca, Montenegro
Key production country:  Yugoslavia
Piccolo (1959), Surogat/Ersatz (1961), Inga/The Game (1962)

<i>Where Is Mama?</i> (1960) directed by Te Wei

Where Is Mama? (1960) directed by Te Wei

Te Wei
1915 –
Born Shanghai, China
Key production country:  China
Highly recommended:  Where Is Mama? (1960), The Cowboy’s Flute (1963), Feeling from Mountain and Water (1988)

John Weldon
1945 –
Born Belleville, Ontario, Canada
Key production country:  Canada
Highly recommended:  Special Delivery (1978), To Be (1990), The Lump (1991)